VBSpam Email Security Comparative Review - June 2022

Ionuţ Răileanu & Adrian Luca

Virus Bulletin

Copyright © 2022 Virus Bulletin


Introduction

In this, the Q2 2022 VBSpam Test,which forms part of Virus Bulletin’s continuously running security product test suite, seven full email security solutions, one custom configured solution1, one open-source solution and two blocklists were assembled on the test bench to measure their performance against various streams of wanted, unwanted and malicious emails.

In this report we see a balanced performance from the tested solutions. There were very few false positives in the ham and newsletter test sets, although phishing emails proved to be a bit of a challenge, particularly those that were not in English.

During the test period one in five emails containing malware were part of an Emotet campaign. There were also Agent Tesla and Qakbot-related samples that managed to evade detection.

Overall, however, the news is good: most of the email security solutions blocked more than 99% of all the spam emails.

For some additional background to this report, the table and map below show the geographical distribution (based on sender IP address) of the spam emails seen in the test. (Note: these statistics are relevant only to the spam samples we received during the test period.)

# Sender's IP country Percentage of spam
1 Brazil 13.06%
2 China 7.13%
3 India 6.51%
4 United States 5.01%
5 Japan 4.79%
6 Republic of Korea 3.46%
7 Vietnam 3.07%
8 Argentina 2.88%
9 Pakistan 2.60%
10 Poland 2.07%

Top 10 countries from which spam was sent.

June22-map.pngGeographical distribution of spam based on sender IP address.

 

Malware and phishing

As in previous VBSpam reports, in this section we highlight the malware and phishing campaigns that managed to evade the filters of most of the tested solutions. This is not intended to be an exhaustive analysis of these samples, rather we aim for this information to be of value for those interested in protecting and defending against some of the latest threats in the email landscape.

 

Agent Tesla

This sample evaded the filters of most of the tested solutions. It is reported to be linked to Agent Tesla2.

The attachment has a ‘.tar.lz’ archive (4c6b715a1e83fbfa42e25f01676e1da5588b1ffeeaba9bb6f8c6972a16c477f5), not password protected, that contains an ‘.scr’ executable file.

The email was sent from 209.85.208.51, a Google IP address, and the content seems crafted to avoid text-based detection.

The sample wasn’t part of a larger campaign and it very much looks like a targeted spam.

Agent-Tesla-sample.pngAgent Tesla sample.

 

Emotet

Around 20% of the malware samples from this test were linked to Emotet3. There was no pause in this campaign, which was active during the 16 days the test ran, with a spike on 12 May.

The samples contain little text and a password-protected zip archive, with the password shared in the text of the email. Most of the missed samples were in languages other than English.

Emotet-sample.pngEmotet sample.

 

Non-English phishing

In this test we continued to observe that the majority of the phishing emails that passed through the email filters were in languages other than English.

The examples shown below are not related to each other or part of a large campaign but they highlight the diversity of the phishing samples we saw in the wild. What all these samples have in common, beside the one Romanian banking email, is that in all the cases the attackers try to leverage the local postal services to convince the recipients to click on the malicious links.

Non-English-sample-missed-by-most.pngThe phishing sample missed by most of the tested solutions.

 

phish-Romanian.pngAnother example of a phishing email in Romanian.

 

phish-Hungarian.pngExample of a Hungarian phishing email.

 

phish-Spanish.pngExample of a Spanish phishing email.

 

phish-Danish.pngExample of a Danish phishing email.

 

English phishing

Even though the majority of English phishing emails were blocked by the email filters, there were some that broke through. Below are two examples of this kind (masquerading as messages from UPS and Netflix). For both of them, the attackers used cloud hosting services (AWS, Beget) to send the emails. The IP addresses from which the emails were sent were 54.240.8.13 and 87.236.19.240.

UPS-phishing.pngUPS phishing email.

Netflix-phishing.png

Netflix phishing email.

 

Qakbot

Compared to the previous quarterly tests, there weren’t many Qakbot-related samples in this test, but we mention this sample because was missed by several of the security solutions.

The template is similar to what we have seen in the past, file‑hosting service URLs temporarily used to access malicious files. The emails were sent as replies to others.

Qakbot-example.pngQakbot example.

 

Results

The majority of the tested solutions managed to achieve very good spam catch rates, with values exceeding 99%. A better comparison between the solutions can be made by looking at the malware and phishing catch rates, subsets of the spam corpus. Here, we highlight the performance of Cleanmail, Libraesva and SEPPmail, all with 100% malware catch rate. No solution achieved a 100% catch rate in the phishing corpus but SEPPmail deserves a mention for having missed only two samples of this kind.

Of the participating full solutions, three – Cleanmail, SEPPmail and Zoho Mail – achieved a VBSpam award, whilst the other four – Bitdefender, Fortinet, Libraesva and N-able Mail Assure – are awarded a VBSpam+ certification, as is the custom configured solution Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin.

 

Bitdefender Security for Mail Servers 3.1.7

SC rate: 99.93%
FP rate: 0.00%
Final score: 99.93
Malware catch rate: 98.81%
Phishing catch rate: 99.76%
Project Honey Pot SC rate: 99.99%
Abusix SC rate: 99.94%
MXMailData SC rate: 98.58%
Newsletters FP rate: 0.0%

Speed:   10% GREEN 50% GREEN 95% GREEN 98% GREEN
  vbspam-plus-0622.jpg

 

The Q2 test of 2022 sees Bitdefender earning another VBSpam+ award, continuing the product’s impressive record. With a 99.93% spam catch rate and no ham or newsletter false positives, the Romania-based company has every reason to be proud of its steady and reliable solution.

 

Cleanmail Domain Gateway

SC rate: 99.96%
FP rate: 0.03%
Final score: 99.74
Malware catch rate: 100.00%
Phishing catch rate: 99.59%
Project Honey Pot SC rate: 99.94%
Abusix SC rate: 99.96%
MXMailData SC rate: 100%
Newsletters FP rate: 1.8%
Speed:   10% GREEN 50% GREEN 95% GREEN 98% GREEN
  vbspam-verified-0622.jpg

 

Not a single malware sample got past Cleanmail’s filters. With a 99.96% spam catch rate and all ham emails returned in less than 30 seconds, it was just one false positive in the ham corpus that stood between Cleanmail and a VBSpam+ award. Nevertheless, it earns VBSpam certification with ease.

 

Fortinet FortiMail

SC rate: 99.92%
FP rate: 0.00%
Final score: 99.92
Malware catch rate: 99.81%
Phishing catch rate: 99.32%
Project Honey Pot SC rate: 99.84%
Abusix SC rate: 99.93%
MXMailData SC rate: 99.60%
Newsletters FP rate: 0.0%
Speed:   10% GREEN 50% GREEN 95% GREEN 98% GREEN
  vbspam-plus-0622.jpg

 

FortiMail continues a run of VBSpam+ awards, this time making it five in a row. With malware and phishing catch rates higher than 99%, no false positives of any kind and green labels at all the speed percentiles, we can only congratulate and highlight one of the most balanced email security solutions in the test.

 

Libraesva ESG v.4.7

SC rate: 99.97%
FP rate: 0.00%
Final score: 99.94
Malware catch rate: 100.00%
Phishing catch rate: 99.73%
Project Honey Pot SC rate: 99.92%
Abusix SC rate: 99.97%
MXMailData SC rate: 100%
Newsletters FP rate: 0.9%
Speed:   10% GREEN 50% GREEN 95% speed-colour-blobs-YELLOW.jpg 98% speed-colour-blobs-YELLOW.jpg
  vbspam-plus-0622.jpg

 

No malicious email managed to get past Libraesva’s filters. Despite one false positive in the newsletter corpus, Libraesva ranks top in the final score rankings with an impressive 99.94. Needless to say, the product earns another VBSpam+ certification to add to its collection.

 

N-able Mail Assure

SC rate: 99.91%
FP rate: 0.00%
Final score: 99.88
Malware catch rate: 99.99%
Phishing catch rate: 99.41%
Project Honey Pot SC rate: 99.78%
Abusix SC rate: 99.91%
MXMailData SC rate: 100%
Newsletters FP rate: 0.9%
Speed:   10% GREEN 50% GREEN 95% GREEN 98% GREEN
  vbspam-plus-0622.jpg

 

N-able Mail Assure continues the run of good performance, blocking more than 99.90% of spam emails as well as more than 99% of the malware and phishing samples. With no false positives in the ham corpus, all the criteria for a VBSpam+ certification are met.

 

Rspamd

SC rate: 97.73%
FP rate: 0.44%
Final score: 95.37
Malware catch rate: 59.82%
Phishing catch rate: 95.32%
Project Honey Pot SC rate: 96.70%
Abusix SC rate: 98.22%
MXMailData SC rate: 57.23%
Newsletters FP rate: 5.5%

Speed:   10% GREEN 50% GREEN 95% GREEN 98% GREEN

 

In this test the open-source solution struggled a little in dealing with the malware samples. However, the numbers are encouraging on the entire spam corpus, with a 97.73% catch rate. Unfortunately the solution didn’t quite meet the criteria to earn VBSpam certification.

 

SEPPmail.cloud Filter

SC rate: 99.995%
FP rate: 0.00%
Final score: 99.84
Malware catch rate: 100.00%
Phishing catch rate: 99.94%
Project Honey Pot SC rate: 99.97%
Abusix SC rate: 99.996%
MXMailData SC rate: 100%
Newsletters FP rate: 4.6%
Speed:   10% GREEN 50% GREEN 95% GREEN 98% speed-colour-blobs-YELLOW.jpg
  vbspam-verified-0622.jpg

 

On its first participation in the VBSpam tests SEPPMail is impressive, with no false negatives in the malware set, only two phishing samples missed, and almost a 100% spam catch rate with just 18 spam samples missed. Due to five newsletter false positives it narrowly misses out on a VBSpam+ award this time, but it earns VBSpam certification with ease.

 

Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin

SC rate: 99.74%
FP rate: 0.00%
Final score: 99.74
Malware catch rate: 99.60%
Phishing catch rate: 98.19%
Project Honey Pot SC rate: 99.25%
Abusix SC rate: 99.76%
MXMailData SC rate: 99.30%
Newsletters FP rate: 0.0%
Speed:   10% GREEN 50% GREEN 95% GREEN 98% GREEN
  vbspam-plus-0622.jpg

 

Spamhaus Data Query Service + SpamAssassin is a custom configured solution that integrates the Spamhaus DQS DNSBL service and the free open-source solution SpamAssassin. In this test the solution shows a balanced performance with no false positives and a spam catch rate higher than 99.70%, thus earning VBSpam+ certification.

 

Zoho Mail

SC rate: 99.15%
FP rate: 0.00%
Final score: 99.15
Malware catch rate: 83.77%
Phishing catch rate: 99.44%
Project Honey Pot SC rate: 97.86%
Abusix SC rate: 99.35%
MXMailData SC rate: 84.61%
Newsletters FP rate: 0.0%
Speed:   10% GREEN 50% GREEN 95% GREEN 98% GREEN
  vbspam-verified-0622.jpg

 

With a 99.15% spam catch rate and no false positives in the ham or newsletter test sets, Zoho Mail is awarded VBSpam certification. It is worth highlighting the product’s impressive phishing catch rate, which exceeds 99%.

 

Abusix Mail Intelligence

SC rate: 98.43%
FP rate: 0.00%
Final score: 98.40
Malware catch rate: 45.27%
Phishing catch rate: 99.14%
Project Honey Pot SC rate: 97.92%
Abusix SC rate: 99.01%
MXMailData SC rate: 48.41%
Newsletters FP rate: 0.9%

Abusix Mail Intelligence is a set of blocklists that is tested as a partial solution because it has access only to parts of the emails (IP addresses, domains, URLs), which are queried as to their DNS zones. With this setup, it’s impressive that the product manages to achieve a spam catch rate of 98.43% and zero ham false positives.

 

Spamhaus Public Mirrors

SC rate: 53.85%
FP rate: 0.09%
Final score: 53.38
Malware catch rate: 8.04%
Phishing catch rate: 48.83%
Project Honey Pot SC rate: 54.86%
Abusix SC rate: 54.29%
MXMailData SC rate: 11.75%
Newsletters FP rate: 0.0%

This is the second time Spamhaus Public Mirrors has participated in the VBSpam test. The product is tested as a partial solution because it has access only to parts of the emails (IP addresses, domains, URLs), which are queried as to their DNS zones.

 

  True negatives False positives FP rate False negatives True positives SC rate Final score VBSpam
Bitdefender 3204  0 0.00% 290.4  395278  99.93%  99.93 vbantispam-plus.gif
Cleanmail Domain Gateway 3203 1 0.03%  152 395416.4  99.96%  99.74 vbantispam-pass.gif
FortiMail 3204 0 0.00% 321.4  395247  99.92% 99.92 vbantispam-plus.gif
Libraesva 3204 0

0.00%

107.6  395460.8  99.97%  99.94 vbantispam-plus.gif
N-able Mail Assure 3204 0 0.00% 367.8  395200.6  99.91%  99.88 vbantispam-plus.gif
Rspamd 3186  18 0.56% 8977.8  386590.6  97.73%  95.37  
SEPPmail.cloud Filter 3204 0 0.00% 18 395550.4 99.995% 99.84 vbantispam-pass.gif
Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin 3204 0 0.00% 1032  394536.4  99.74%  99.74 vbantispam-plus.gif
Zoho Mail 3204 0 0.00% 3378  392190.4  99.15% 99.15 vbantispam-pass.gif
Abusix Mail Intelligence* 3204 0 0.00% 6209.4  389359  98.43% 98.40 N/A
Spamhaus Public Mirrors* 3201 3 0.09%  182560.6  213007.8  53.85%  53.38  N/A

Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin is a fully configured solution that integrates Spamhaus DQS on top of SpamAssassin. Spamhaus DQS is not a stand-alone solution but rather a DNSBL service that can be added to MTAs and email security solutions such as SpamAssasssin. The test set up reflects the real-life performance expected from this combined production deployment, not as individual product elements.
*These products are partial solutions and their performance should not be compared with that of other products.
(Please refer to the text for full product names and details.)

 

   Newsletters Malware Phishing Project Honey Pot Abusix MXMailData STDev
False positives FP rate False negatives SC rate False negatives SC rate False negatives SC rate False negatives SC rate False negatives SC rate
Bitdefender 0 0.0% 110 98.81%  8 99.76%  1 99.99%  228.4 99.94%  61 98.58%  0.49
Cleanmail Domain Gateway  2 1.8% 0 100.00% 14 99.59%  8 99.94%  144 99.96%  0 100.00% 0.18 
FortiMail 0 0.0% 18 99.81%  23 99.32%  21 99.84%  283.4  99.93%  17 99.60%  0.51
Libraesva 1 0.9%  0 100.00% 9 99.73%  10.8 99.92%  96.8 99.97%  0 100.00% 0.17
N-able Mail Assure  1 0.9% 1 99.99%  20 99.41%  28.4 99.78%  339.4 99.91%  0 100.00% 0.38
Rspamd 6 5.5% 3716 59.82%  158 95.32%  429 96.70%  6714.8  98.22% 1834  57.23%  5.93
SEPPmail.cloud Filter  5 4.6% 0 100.00% 2 99.94%  4 99.97%  14 99.996%  0 100.00% 0.07 
Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin  0 0.0% 37 99.60%  61 98.19%  97.8 99.25%  904.2 99.76%  30 99.30%  0.72
Zoho Mail 0 0.0% 1501  83.77%  19 99.44%  277.8  97.86%  2440.2  99.35%  660 84.61%  2.47
Abusix Mail Intelligence* 1 0.9% 5061  45.27%  29 99.14%  270.4 97.92%  3727 99.01%  2212 48.41%  5.27
Spamhaus Public Mirrors* 0 0.0% 8504  8.04%  1727 48.83%  5863.4  54.86%  172913.2  54.29%  3784  11.75%  11.99

The standard deviation of a product is calculated using the set of its hourly spam catch rates.
Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin is a fully configured solution that integrates Spamhaus DQS on top of SpamAssassin. Spamhaus DQS is not a stand-alone solution but rather a DNSBL service that can be added to MTAs and email security solutions such as SpamAssasssin. The test set up reflects the real-life performance expected from this combined production deployment, not as individual product elements.
*These products are partial solutions and their performance should not be compared with that of other products. None of the queries to the IP blocklist included any information on the attachments; hence their performance on the malware corpus is added purely for information. (Please refer to the text for full product names and details.)

 

   Speed
10% 50% 95% 98%
Bitdefender speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg
Cleanmail Domain Gateway speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg
FortiMail speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg
Libraesva speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-YELLOW.jpg speed-colour-blobs-YELLOW.jpg
N-able Mail Assure speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg
Rspamd speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg
SEPPmail.cloud Filter speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-YELLOW.jpg
Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg
Zoho Mail speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg
speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg 0-30 seconds speed-colour-blobs-YELLOW.jpg 30 seconds to two minutes speed-colour-blobs-ORANGE.jpg two minutes to 10 minutes speed-colour-blobs-RED.jpg more than 10 minutes

Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin is a fully configured solution that integrates Spamhaus DQS on top of SpamAssassin. Spamhaus DQS is not a stand-alone solution but rather a DNSBL service that can be added to MTAs and email security solutions such as SpamAssasssin. The test set up reflects the real-life performance expected from this combined production deployment, not as individual product elements.

 

Products ranked by final score
Libraesva 99.94
Bitdefender 99.93
FortiMail 99.92
N-able Mail Assure 99.88 
SEPPmail.cloud Filter 99.84 
Cleanmail Domain Gateway 99.74 
Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin  99.74
Zoho Mail 99.15 
Abusix Mail Intelligence*  98.40
Rspamd 95.37 
Spamhaus Public Mirrors*  53.38

Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin is a fully configured solution that integrates Spamhaus DQS on top of SpamAssassin. Spamhaus DQS is not a stand-alone solution but rather a DNSBL service that can be added to MTAs and email security solutions such as SpamAssasssin. The test set up reflects the real-life performance expected from this combined production deployment, not as individual product elements.
*These products are partial solutions and their performance should not be compared with that of other products.

 

Hosted solutions Anti-malware IPv6 DKIM SPF DMARC Multiple MX-records Multiple locations
Cleanmail Domain Gateway Cleanmail    
N-able Mail Assure N-able Mail Assure    
SEPPmail.cloud Filter SEPPmail √  √  √   √ √  √ 
Zoho Mail Zoho  

(Please refer to the text for full product names and details.)

 

Local solutions Anti-malware IPv6 DKIM SPF DMARC Interface
CLI GUI Web GUI API
Bitdefender Bitdefender        
FortiMail Fortinet  
Libraesva ClamAV; others optional        
Rspamd None              
Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin Optional        

Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin is a fully configured solution that integrates Spamhaus DQS on top of SpamAssassin. Spamhaus DQS is not a stand-alone solution but rather a DNSBL service that can be added to MTAs and email security solutions such as SpamAssasssin. The test set up reflects the real-life performance expected from this combined production deployment, not as individual product elements.

(Please refer to the text for full product names and details.)

 VBSpam-quadrant-June22.jpg

(Please refer to the text for full product names and details.)

 

 

Appendix: set-up, methodology and email corpora

The full VBSpam test methodology can be found at https://www.virusbulletin.com/testing/vbspam/vbspam-methodology/vbspam-methodology-ver20.

The test ran for 16 days, from 12am on 7 May to 12am on 23 May 2022 (GMT).

The test corpus consisted of 398,959 emails. Of these, 395,646 were spam, 13,030 of which were provided by Project Honey Pot, 378,328 were provided by Abusix, and the remaining 4,288 spam emails were provided by MXMailData. There were 3,204 legitimate emails (or ‘ham’) and 109 newsletters – a category that includes various kinds of commercial and non-commercial opt-in mailings.

97 emails in the spam corpus were considered ‘unwanted’ (see the June 2018 report4) and were included with a weight of 0.2; this explains the non-integer numbers in some of the tables.

Moreover, 9,248 emails from the spam corpus were found to contain a malicious attachment while 3,375 contained a link to a phishing or malware site; though we report separate performance metrics on these corpora, it should be noted that these emails were also counted as part of the spam corpus.

Emails were sent to the products in real time and in parallel. Though products received the email from a fixed IP address, all products had been set up to read the original sender’s IP address as well as the EHLO/HELO domain sent during the SMTP transaction, either from the email headers or through an optional XCLIENT SMTP command5.

For those products running in our lab, we all ran them as virtual machines on a VMware ESXi cluster. As different products have different hardware requirements – not to mention those running on their own hardware, or those running in the cloud – there is little point comparing the memory, processing power or hardware the products were provided with; we followed the developers’ requirements and note that the amount of email we receive is representative of that received by a small organization.

Although we stress that different customers have different needs and priorities, and thus different preferences when it comes to the ideal ratio of false positive to false negatives, we created a one-dimensional ‘final score’ to compare products. This is defined as the spam catch (SC) rate minus five times the weighted false positive (WFP) rate. The WFP rate is defined as the false positive rate of the ham and newsletter corpora taken together, with emails from the latter corpus having a weight of 0.2:

WFP rate = (#false positives + 0.2 * min(#newsletter false positives , 0.2 * #newsletters)) / (#ham + 0.2 * #newsletters)

while in the spam catch rate (SC), emails considered ‘unwanted’ (see above) are included with a weight of 0.2.

The final score is then defined as:

Final score = SC - (5 x WFP)

In addition, for each product, we measure how long it takes to deliver emails from the ham corpus (excluding false positives) and, after ordering these emails by this time, we colour-code the emails at the 10th, 50th, 95th and 98th percentiles:

speed-colour-blobs-GREEN.jpg (green) = up to 30 seconds
YELLOW (yellow) = 30 seconds to two minutes
speed-colour-blobs-ORANGE.jpg (orange) = two to ten minutes
speed-colour-blobs-RED.jpg (red) = more than ten minutes

 

Products earn VBSpam certification if the value of the final score is at least 98 and the ‘delivery speed colours’ at 10 and 50 per cent are green or yellow and that at 95 per cent is green, yellow or orange.

Meanwhile, products that combine a spam catch rate of 99.5% or higher with a lack of false positives, no more than 2.5% false positives among the newsletters and ‘delivery speed colours’ of green at 10 and 50 per cent and green or yellow at 95 and 98 per cent earn a VBSpam+ award.

 

Footnotes

1 Spamhaus Data Query Service (DQS) + SpamAssassin is a custom solution built on top of the SpamAssassin open-source anti-spam platform.

2 https://bazaar.abuse.ch/sample/2b21885c68cf8bcee3be7e08574372130a42c74a047b1f962cc5e270bb7b543e/#intel.

3 https://bazaar.abuse.ch/sample/bcb53af88c2eb7a3e04c8874854a6c4fc0a2b9890ed39cc4bc9c1f7ef6380563/.

4 https://www.virusbulletin.com/virusbulletin/2018/06/vbspam-comparative-review.

5 http://www.postfix.org/XCLIENT_README.html.

 

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